The Barrier* and Bow Tie Model

Norwegian Hull Club's Loss Prevention Programme is based on two risk assessment models: The Barrier Model and The Bow Tie Model. Barriers are erected in order to avoid accidents, and may consist of equipment, processes, procedures and people. The presence of one or more barriers will, theoretically, be sufficient to prevent an accident. If there is a gap in one or more of them an accident might occur. This often depends on human factors. It is important to be aware of potential gaps and how they can be closed. As mentioned above, non-technical skills often cause these gaps, but they are also highly important in closing them.

*Barrier Model, or Swiss Cheese Model (Revisiting the “Swiss Cheese” model of accidents (Eurocontrol)) 

Hazard model

Vessel / Unit and Equipment

Human factors in Design


Procedures, Risk Assignment and Accident Investigation, Safety Critical Communication, Organisational Change, Staffing Levels and Workload, Contractor Intercafes, Learning Organisations


Leadership, Maintenance, Inspection and Testing, Supervision, Fatigue (Shiftwork/Overtime), Managing Human Failures, Training and Competence, Behavioral Safety


Incident, Failure, Injury

Figure 1. Illustrates varous barriers that are put in place to avoid hazards to develop into losses.

Bow Tie Model

Crew Resource Management

Cooperation and good team work is the key to improved safety performance and efficient operations. The course focuses on non technical skills, such as perception, communication, cooperation and leadership.
Duration 4 hours

Arctic conditions

Ships have been trading in and through ice for over a century. Knowledge have previously been passed on from Captain to Captain.
In today's shipping industry, where time and profit is of essence, one sometimes see that the basic level of knowledge is somewhat lacking as the ice season is cyclically shorter and most crew don't trade in ice every year.
Norwegian Hull Club has acknowledged this challenge and we have produced a Maritime Arctic Awareness Course for crew and office employees or other personnel being involved in the planning of ice/remote passages.
Duration of this interactive course would usually be from 2 - 3 hrs and is conducted at the ship owner's location or at facilities as part of a crewing conference.
The objective of this course is to refresh or gain basic knowledge of making voyages through ice infested or remote waters as safe as possible and without any claims due to lack of understanding.
Duration of this interactive course would usually vary from 2 - 4 hrs depending on requirement and level of previous training.

Master Pilot

Based on the CRM course the master pilot addresses issues related to roles and responsibilities when operating with a pilot onboard.
Duration 2 hours

Helicopter Flight Safety awareness

Today Yachts and Super Yachts are often equipped with helipads or helidecks in order to meet the needs and desires of the owners.
Operating these pads and decks safely on moving multi million dollar platforms where style and aesthetic display is of essence, is demanding for Yacht crews, who might only receive a helicopter a few times a year.
Norwegian Hull Club has acknowledged this challenge and we have produced an interactive Helicopter Flight Safety Awareness Course for Yacht Crews.
The objective of this course is to gain & refresh basic knowledge on helicopter operations making your vessel and crew more mentally prepared for the next scheduled landing or CASEVAC by SAR helicopter.
Duration 2-3 hours

Piracy awareness training

Piracy has made a huge impact on shipping companies directly involved in trading the Indian ocean and the Gulf of Guinea. (GoG)
How should ships prepare, how should crew and the shipping company prepare themselves for a potential worst case scenario?
Norwegian Hull Club has acknowledged this challenge and we have produced a Piracy Awareness Course for officers and office employees.
The objective of this course is to gain and refresh basic knowledge on world wide piracy and crisis management, making your vessel and / or organization more mentally prepared for the next scheduled transit in Piracy infested waters.
Duration 2-8 hours depending on scenario

Tropical Storm Warning

The official Atlantic hurricane season starts on 1st June and ends on 1st December. As for the entire Far East, their typhoon season is more or less year around, but most Typhoons occur from April to December, with peaks in May and November.
Norwegian Hull Club monitors weather systems that can develop into hurricanes, typhoons or cyclones.

Crisis Management

When in crises humans often behave differently. Basic skills are easily forgotten and our ability to carry out our duties are at risk. Crises management builds on CRM and discusses how humans, crews and teams are affected of a crises situation and the importance of training to make the best out of a crises situation.


An emergency is rare for any ship owner. But what is for sure is that when there is an emergency many things wil have to be dealt with in the right manner.
NHC office training is developed to fulfill the requirements under the ISM code paragraph 8 Emergency Preparedness. The scenarios can vary from grounding, drifting, fire and water penetration, collision etc The exercises are based on live cases and or realistic scenarios developed together with the client.
The form of the exercise can vary from table top to full scale exercises covering technical, operational, media, information sharing, notifications and Next of Kin handling.
Duration 3-6 houts


See ISM and piracy training. The same method of training, but the scenarios are related to war perils, such as piracy, terror, civil unrest etc
Duration 3-6 hours

Assistance and Salvage

Based on ISM, ISPS and crises management. This course and exercise looks deeper into various types of assistance and salvage. Contracts in place and, roles and responsibilities. The course also covers the aftermath of an assistance such as settlements. The level of details in the course is adjusted to the audience.
Duration 3 hrs


How should your company deal with the media in an emergency situation? How can you be prepared enough to be able to make the journalists your friends instead of your enemies?
The course gives an introduction to how the media thinks and acts in case of an accident; and how to best prepared to meet the media. The course is interactive with live exercises such as telephone-, live- and TV interviews, press statements, press briefings and use of social media.
Duration 3 hrs

Next of Kin

In cases of an emergency there is a group who cannot be forced to stand in line; someone will have to focus on and take care of the Next of Kin from the moment you get the information.
The course gives an introduction to how to best organize NOK response, roles and responsibilities, information and care. The course is interactive with role plays.
Duration up to 3 hrs-

Figure 2 shows The Bow Tie Model, where layers of defence are implemented in order to avoid an incident. The layers depend on the human element to perceive that an incident is developing and take actions to avoid it. If an incident occurs there will be a number of consequences. Good crisis management routines improve your ability to handle the consequences of an incident and limit the losses.

Norwegian Hull Club works with loss prevention on both sides of the tie. The main goal is to prevent incidents from occurring at all, but we should be realistic and realise that in a marine or offshore environment, accidents will happen. It is therefore important to be prepared to react in a crisis in order to limit potential losses. Perception, communication and group cohesion are as important during crises as during normal operations yet become much more difficult to maintain. People on shore and at sea are not too familiar with operating in a crisis situation, and unless they know what to do a state of panic or inaction may occur. Norwegian Hull Club offers training in crisis management for on-shore and seagoing personnel.

The Norwegian Hull Club Loss Prevention Programme offers a range of activities in accident prevention and crisis management:

  1. Accident Prevention: Interactive Lectures

    (the left side of the bow tie)

    Activity Shore Sea Hrs Description
    Crew Resource Management (CRM)   * 4+ Non-technical skills, leadership, perception and communication.
    Master and Pilot   * 2 Case studies, roles and responsibilities. Based on CRM.
    Piracy * * 4 Case studies and preventive measures. What to do if hijacked.
    Storm warnings * *   Storm warnings for extreme storms that can affect NHC insured vessels and platforms.
    Casualty presentation * *   Short letters describing trends we see that can affect safety and security for ongoing operations.
  2. Crisis Management: Interactive Exercises

    (the right side of the bow tie)

    Activity Shore Sea Hrs Description
    Crisis Management * * 2+ Human reactions in crisis situations (CRM in crisis situations).
    ISM *   3+ Ship and crew in need of assistance due to water penetration, fire, grounding etc.
    ISPS *   3+ Ship and crew threatened by or has suffered terror, piracy or other war-like perils.
    Assistance and Salvage * * 3 What to do when in need of assistance. Worst-case scenario. Timeline, notifications, resources, contracts and evidence collection.
    Media * * 3+ How to relate to the media, including the role of social media in times of crisis. Practical exercises: interviews, press statements and briefings.
    Next of Kin *   3+ How to relate to next of kin (NOK) in crisis situations. Includes practical exercises.
    Marine Insurance Course for Superintendents *   3+ Lessons learned from major casualties. Various types of insurance in H&M and P&I. Learn about the claims process and how to present a claim (the Owner’s Statement of Claim).

    The exercises cover technical and operational issues, relations to the media and next of kin. The exercises may be organised as a tabletop event (a sequenced incident) or a full- scale dent where all three elements are involved. The exercises and scenarios are tailored according to the client’s requirements.

    Long-term experience shows that there are no quick fixes in this line of work. The NHC has therefore assembled a three-year plan for shore staff training, as illustrated by Figure 3 below.

    Plan model

    Exercise Year 1

    The first exercise can be a procedural tabletop where the goal is to run through procedures and find strength and weaknesses within the contingency organisation. The exercise should identify needs for internal training prior to next years exercise.


    The company can conduct training iaw lessons identified from former exercises.

    Exercise Year 2

    The second exercise can build on the first one. It can address single challenges, such as operational / technical issues, media or Next of Kin.


    The company can conduct training iaw lessons identified from former exercises.

    Exercise Year 3

    The third exercise can be a full scale exercise, where the goal is to stress your organisation and test all elements, such as operational/technical issues, media and Next of Kin.


    The company can conduct training iaw lessons identified from former exercises.

    Figure 3; The three-year plan: The experiences from the first exercise will be used to determine the need for additional train- ing in the period until next exercise.

  3. Planning an Activity

    To plan an activity, contact us through your broker or your responsible underwriter at the Norwegian Hull Club. For any practical enquiries related to this information do not hesitate to contact the team responsible for the training at

  4. Video

    The following animation shows a variety of scenarios that can be used for crisis management exercises.